South Dakota has added jobs faster than the nation as a whole since 2000, with South Dakota's job growth at 12.9 percent over 14 years, according to recently updated federal data.
Over the same time period, national job growth was 5.2 percent, an addition of 6.7 million jobs to a total of 136.6 million in 2014. During the Great Recession, the total number of jobs nationwide dipped below the 129.9 million that were present in 2000. In 2010, jobs dropped to a low of 127.8 million before growth resumed in 2011.
South Dakota lost jobs during the Great Recession years but did not come close to falling below the 364,119 jobs the state had in 2000. The recession took the state's total jobs number from 397,108 in 2008 to about 389,000 in 2009 and 2010 before job growth resumed. By 2012, the state's total jobs topped 400,000. In 2014, it hit 410,931.
Between June 2014 and June 2015, South Dakota ranked 15th nationally with 2.3 percent job growth. That compares to No. 1 Utah, with 4.5 percent job growth, and No. 50 West Virginia, which experienced 0.6 percent job loss. During that year, South Dakota led all of its neighbors for job growth, with No. 29 Iowa the next highest, at 1.5 percent growth. At the same time, Wyoming ranking 49th with a loss of 0.1 percent. Low oil prices have slowed down North Dakota, which ranked 47th with job growth of 0.4 percent.
The second installment of Trivia Tuesday is hot off the presses. Impress your friends and coworkers after learning smart-sounding data from our sleek infographics. Further your education by scrolling to the end of the page and clicking the text links to dive deeper into the data at hand. This week’s installment focuses on economic trends in anticipation of the 2015 South Dakota Demography Conference's mini-conference on the state of the South Dakota Economy. Make sure to check out our event page to learn more about registering for this annual event.
South Dakota has lagged the nation for growth of its gross domestic product (GDP) over the past three years. The economy actually shrunk between 2011 and 2012 as GDP declined -0.9 percent, according to recently updated federal data.
In 2012, 2013 and 2014 the Rushmore State did not keep up with national GDP growth, as the chart below shows. Still, the state logged a record $39.8 billion GDP in 2014.
The weakness in South Dakota's economy in recent years follows a period of expansion before and during the Great Recession when the rate of growth for the state's GDP exceeded that of the nation. For five straight years, between 2007 and 2011, South Dakota matched or bested national GDP growth. During the Great Recession between 2008 and 2009, when the US experienced a decline in GDP, South Dakota recorded 1 percent growth from 2008 to 2009. In 2011, as the economy recovered and corn prices rose, South Dakota recorded an eye-popping 5 percent increase in GDP growth. (The state's recent high for GDP growth came in 2002 at 10.8 percent.)
Among the 50 states, South Dakota's 0.6 percent GDP growth ranked 41st in 2014, compared to No. 1 North Dakota, at 6.3 percent, and No. 50 Alaska at -1.3 percent. (Alaska and Mississippi were the only states to experience negative GDP growth in 2014 while Virginia had 0 percent growth.)
When looking at per-capita GDP, the picture looks more grim. Since 2011, South Dakota's inflation-adjusted, per-capita GDP has declined each year from $48,064 in 2011 to $46,688 in 2014. South Dakota ranked 24th among the 50 states in 2014, compared to No. 1 Alaska at $66,160 and No. 50 Mississippi at $31,551.
Nationally, real per-capita GDP has increased from $47,641 in 2011 to $49,469 in 2014. For just one year—2011—South Dakota's per-capita GDP exceeded the national level, according to data that goes back to 1997.
When looking at GDP per working-age adult, South Dakota fares better and exceeded the national rate for four straight years, 2009-2012. In 2013, the most recent year for which this subset of data is available, South Dakota's per working-age adult GDP was $74,757 compared to the national rate of $75,175. Before the recession, the gap was much wider, as much as $10,000 in 2001 and more in 2000. That gap diminished in the years leading up to 2008 and only tipped slightly away from South Dakota's favor in 2013.
In South Dakota's two main metro areas, women earned on average about $11,000 less than their male counterparts in 2013, although that is for all work and not only full-time employment.
That figure places the Sioux Falls and Rapid City metropolitan areas in the middle of the pack for the gender wage gap in the Upper Great Plains region, according to an online analysis of all the nation's metro areas.
The wage gap in Sioux Falls and Rapid City is lower than the national wage gap of almost $13,000, while the Sioux City metro area – part of which is in South Dakota – tops the national average at $14,208. (Sioux Falls' metro area is comprised of Minnehaha, Lincoln, Turner and McCook counties. Rapid City's metro area is comprised of Pennington, Meade and Custer counties. Union County in South Dakota is included in the Sioux City metro area.)
The highest paid men in the Sioux Falls metro area, at an average of $101,000, work in the category of “education, legal, community service, arts and media.” The highest paid women in the Sioux Falls area, at an average of $53,000, work in the category of “computer, engineering and math.”
The lowest paid men in Sioux Falls, at an average of $16,000, work in “food preparation and serving occupations,” while the lowest paid women, at an average of $9,000, work in “farming, fishing and forestry.”
The highest paid men in the Rapid City metro area, at an average of $91,000, work in the category of “health diagnosing and treating practitioners and other technical occupations.” The highest paid women in the Rapid City area, at $54,000, work in “farming, fishing and forestry.”
The lowest paid men in Rapid City, at $13,000, work in “food preparation and serving occupations,” while the lowest paid women, at $11,000, also work in that category.
The similarly situated metro areas in the region with smaller wage gaps are listed below.
Cheyenne, Wyo. - Wage gap of $10,481
Grand Forks, N.D. - Wage gap of $10,182
The similarly situated metro areas with larger wage gaps are listed below.
Casper, Wyo. - Wage gap of $16,486
Billings. Mont. - Wage gap of $16,335
Bismarck, N.D. - Wage gap of $15,704
Fargo, N.D. - Wage gap of $14,100
Nationally, the legal occupations – listed as “management, business, science, education, legal, community service, arts and media” -- had the largest wage gap at $48,118 while the food preparation and serving occupation had the smallest gap, at $1,566.
Two years ago, the Sioux City metropolitan area enjoyed the highest increases in real personal income in the nation, according to a new analysis released by the US Bureau of Economic Analysis. Sioux Falls was not far behind. Meanwhile the Rapid City metropolitan area suffered significant declines and was among the lowest in the nation.
For the state as a whole, South Dakota enjoyed one of the highest increases in real personal income in 2013, experiencing a rise of 2.0 percent. The increase ranked fifth highest in the nation. The growth in real incomes was helped by the fact that South Dakota enjoyed the third lowest overall cost of living, as measured by the BEA’s analysis of regional price parities by state. The state’s year-over-year increase in the cost of living was the lowest in the nation at 0.1 percent.
The BEA’s report adjusts personal income based on national and regional cost-of-living and inflation factors. The report concluded that total real personal income in Sioux City rose 4.8 percent in 2013. The boom in Sioux City reflected a dramatic rebound after real personal incomes declined between 2011 and 2012. In 2013, real personal incomes rose 2.8 percent in Sioux Falls and declined in Rapid City by 0.4 percent.
Changes on a per capita basis provide greater insights into the overall increase in prosperity. In Sioux City, the increase in real per capita personal income was also 4.8 percent, while in Sioux Falls it was only 0.3 percent. In the Rapid City metropolitan area, real per capita personal income declined 2.2 percent.
For more information, see the press release from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis. To explore further data on incomes in South Dakota, see our interactive charts and graphs.
Personal income declined by $336 million or 0.8 percent in South Dakota during the first quarter of 2015, according to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Sharp drops in farm incomes throughout the Great Plains were a major factor.
Across the United States, earnings increased 0.8 percent in the first quarter of 2015. Declines in farm income more than offset income gains in all other sectors in South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Iowa. Among the fifty states, only Iowa turned in a lower personal income performance than South Dakota.
Net earnings from wages and business income actually dropped 1.9 percent in the state in the first quarter. Cost-of-living increases for Social Security benefits helped offset some of this decline in the state’s personal income by increasing transfer receipts by 1.4 percent, while increases of 0.8 percent in earnings from dividends, interest and rents provided another boost to an otherwise flagging economy.
In South Dakota, seasonally adjusted Farm earnings fell by $696 million from the fourth quarter of 2014, down 25.29 percent. The strongest growth sectors on a percentage basis were Utilities (up 3.54 percent) and Construction (up 2.89 percent). Health Care and Social Assistance saw the largest increase in actual earnings, up $65 million in the first quarter.
For further details, see the release from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Taxpayer money sent to public K-12 education in South Dakota and across the United States goes largely to teacher salaries and benefits, shows a South Dakota Dashboard analysis of recently released federal data for the year 2013.
Teacher salaries consumed 34.4 percent of the $1.3 billion public schools in South Dakota received from federal, state and local taxpayers. An additional 9.7 percent went towards employee benefits for teachers. All totaled, the $579.5 million spent on teacher pay and benefits equaled nearly 44.1 percent of K-12 education funds allocated statewide.
South Dakota came close to the national average for the proportion of education dollars spent on teacher pay and benefits, although the dollar amount remains well behind average. Nationally, nearly 34.8 percent of public school funding was used to pay teachers' salaries plus another 13 percent for teachers' benefits. In total, teacher pay and benefits consumed 47.8 percent of the nation's K-12 public school funding in 2013.
Salaries and benefits for support staff in South Dakota, including administrators, accounted for 18.7 percent ($391 million), with $189 million (14.4 percent) in salaries and nearly $57 million (4.3 percent) in benefits. This also came close to the national figures, which were 15 percent for support staff salaries and 5.9 percent for support staff benefits.
An additional 4.9 percent of spending ($65 million) was used for “all other functions” in South Dakota. Expenditures for adult education, community services and other non-elementary-secondary programs are included in this category. South Dakota’s rate of spending for services outside of instructional and support staff is on par with the national average of 4.6 percent.
The federal report, Public Education Finances 2013, from the U.S. Census Bureau, slices school spending several different ways for all 50 states. Here's a look at how much is spent on “support” categories in South Dakota.
The report breaks down the $391 million spent on “support. .
Pupil support - $60.7 million (4.6 percent)
Instructional staff support - $44.5 million (3.4 percent)
General administration - $38.1 million (3 percent)
School administration - $53.6 million (4.1 percent)
Operation & maintenance - $115.4 million (8.8 percent)
Pupil transportation - $41.8 million (3.2 percent)
Non-specified support - $36.6 million (2.8 percent)
Education Data Series
This look at K-12 spending is the second in a series of reports highlighting data specific to education prepared by the South Dakota Dashboard and the Black Hills Knowledge Network. The series will examine what the available data shows about education funding, practices and achievements both statewide and in individual school districts. To view other segments, see our Education Data Series Archive.
State spending for South Dakota’s public K-12 schools covers less than a third of the cost of education while local taxpayers pay more than half the bill, according to a South Dakota Dashboard analysis of recently released federal data.
South Dakota ranks almost dead last in state-level funding and lags every neighboring state for total per-pupil spending, the data shows.
In 2013, South Dakota ranked 49th among the 50 states for per-pupil spending from the state level, which was $3,131 per student. At the same time, local property taxpayers ponied up $5,461 per student, ranking South Dakota 18th for public-school support from local taxpayers. South Dakota ranks 6th for federal support, which was $1,495 per pupil in 2013 (the most recent year for which nationwide data is available.)
In total, South Dakota spent more than $1.1 billion on public K-12 schools in 2013, with $712 million (54 percent) coming from local taxes, $408 million (31 percent) from the state level and $195 million (15 percent) from the federal level.
In addition, South Dakota ranks last among all neighboring states for total per-pupil spending, including local, state and federal sources. In 2013, total per-pupil spending was $10,087, placing the state 41st among the 50 states. Neighboring Wyoming ranked sixth and spent $18,498 with $9,626 coming from the state level.
Here's a look at the national ranking for per-pupil spending in the remaining neighboring states:
No. 16 North Dakota spent $13,478 with $6,784 from the state level
No. 18 Minnesota spent $13,340 with $8,464 from the state level
No. 21 Nebraska spent $12,514 with $4,014 from the state level
No. 24 Iowa spent $12,072 with $6,243 from the state level
No. 29 Montana spent $11,566 with $5,521 from the state level
All data used in this release comes from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2013 Annual Survey of School System Finances.
Education Data Series
This look at K-12 funding in South Dakota is the first in a series of reports highlighting data specific to education statewide by the South Dakota Dashboard and the Black Hills Knowledge Network. The series will examine what the available data shows about education funding, practices and achievements both statewide and in individual school districts. To view other segments, see our Education Data Series Archive.
South Dakota’s economy grew by 0.6 percent in 2014, according to data released by the US Bureau of Economic Analysis. The state trailed the overall growth of the United States, which was 2.2 percent. South Dakota ranked 41st among the 50 states.
Continuing declines in the agricultural sector accounted for a significant part of the weakness in South Dakota’s economy, but there were also drops in mining, construction, utilities, finance and insurance, and educational services. The strongest parts of the economy included wholesale trade, durable goods manufacturing, retail trade, health care and social assistance.
With this release, the BEA also revised some estimates for previous years. These newly revised numbers show that South Dakota’s economic growth since 2012 has been substantially slower than previously reported. For 2013, GDP dropped from a previously reported level of 3.1 percent to a revised estimate of 0.9 percent. For 2012, GDP was lowered from 0.3 percent to negative 0.9 percent.
Read the full news release online.
The chart below displays recent economic growth by region.